ACL- Anterior cruciate ligament.


  • Weaker of the two cruciate ligaments
  • It connects from a posterio-lateral part of the femur to an anterio-medial part of the tibia


  • Prevents posterior displacement of the femur on the tibia and hyperextension of the knee joint.
  • Limits posterior rolling of the femoral condyles on the tibial plateau during flexion and turns it into a spin. 


Injuries to the ACL… 

  • The ACL is the most commonly injured knee ligament and is most common in athletes (generally field sports such as- soccer and football).
  • The ACL is often torn during sudden dislocation, torsion, or hyperextension of the knee.
  • Usually the injury occurs when someone tries to rapidly change direction with the leading leg out, twisting the knee. Or sudden high pressure contact, especially side on.
  • Generally if the knee is locked, and the leg is firmly planted, then there is a much greater risk of injury.


ACL rupture can be divided into three main causes:

·        Environmental causes: e.g. sports

·        Hormone causes: high levels of specific hormones are associate with ACL ruptures- oestrogen is one of these hormones, thus women are at a higher risk of injury

·        Anatomical causes: e.g. female athletes tending to land more straight-legged than men, removing the quadriceps’ muscles shock-absorbing action on the knee. Often the knee on a straight leg can’t withstand this and bends sideways


Symptoms of someone with an ACL rupture:

Symptoms of an ACL injury include hearing a sudden popping sound, swelling, and instability of the knee (i.e., a “wobbly” feeling). Continued athletic activity on a knee with an ACL injury can have devastating consequences, resulting in massive cartilage damage, leading to an increased risk of developing osteoarthritis later in life.





~ by pcl4 on September 23, 2008.

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